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Cause analysis of air compressor failure

Source: essens air compressor Time of publication: May 25, 2020 tag: Small in large

(1) High and low pressure cylinder and rotor.

When the high pressure cylinder is in CO and the compressor starts, its vibration value will change with the change of internal pressure.

In the actual production process, in order to ensure the safety and stability of the equipment and eliminate the potential safety hazard caused by pressure change as far as possible, we must stop the machine in time and restart after the pressure drops to the safety value.

The causes of high pressure cylinder vibration are as follows:

① The compressed gas has high pressure and strong oscillation force.

② In the specific construction process, the operation environment of the compressor is poor, which affects the stable operation of the system.

③ The rotor performance is not stable enough and the balance accuracy is low. ④ The actual running speed of the high pressure cylinder is too fast, which eventually causes resonance.

⑤ The temperature of lubricating oil increases and the pressure of air inlet decreases gradually.

@There is resonance between the compressor base and the high pressure cylinder inlet.

Similarly, the vibration of the low pressure cylinder will also lead to abnormal vibration of the compressor when starting.

The causes of low pressure cylinder vibration are as follows:

The fine dust particles blocked the filter screen, and the outer layer of the filter screen was seriously corroded;

The dynamic performance of the impeller is reduced due to fouling and oil film;
 Air compressor failure

The back pressure rises sharply in a short time due to the blockage of baffle passage;

The relative differential expansion between the LP cylinder and the driven turbine.

In addition, the abnormal vibration is also related to the rotor, which can be divided into two aspects

Firstly, the friction fault occurs in the middle of the main span of the rotor when the compressor is running.

Secondly, in the process of many times of operation of the compressor, the rotor is constantly impacted and worn, resulting in poor balance sense and increased vibration amplitude. At the same time, the dynamic and static clearance between the high-pressure cylinder shaft and the blade shaft reaches the minimum value, and finally makes the clearance disappear, which leads to abnormal vibration.

(2) Material characteristics and design defects of cooler.

There are two main reasons for the damage of intercooler

First, the U-tube was damaged.

The main reason for the damage of U-tube is the strong corrosion of stainless steel pipe caused by excessive chloride ion in cooling circulating water.

In addition, the U-tube still retains some residual stress during the shaping process.

Secondly, the gas leakage caused by damaged tube bundle.

Due to the large heat exchange area of the cooler, the cooling water flow rate is low, and even stagnation phenomenon occurs, resulting in the increase of heat transfer uneven stress.

At the same time, the inlet temperature is just in the range of stainless steel stress corrosion sensitive temperature, which further leads to gas leakage.
 Air compressor maintenance

(3) The cause of surge phenomenon.

There are many reasons leading to surge phenomenon. Subjectively, in the actual production process, the operators can not master the relevant technical essentials and can not respond to the emergency situation timely and effectively.

Objectively speaking, it can be divided into the following reasons.

Theoretically, we can only predict the general fluctuation trend of surge, but not the actual fluctuation of surge.

In terms of preventive measures, the anti surge system is not perfect and the anti surge valve has not yet realized automatic control.

From the performance of the compressor itself, the actual operating conditions of the compressor can not meet the best design requirements; in the case of huge changes in the flow pressure of the impeller, the high-pressure cylinder is prone to runaway, separation and other accidents when rotating.

From the external interference factors, the CO2 gas leakage accident caused by the corrosion of the cooler leads to the gradual reduction of the inlet air volume of the compressor.

From the perspective of weather conditions, the change of weather leads to the instability of compressor operation.

 

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